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Vessels & Blood Pressure: CHAPTER 20 I. Vessel Structure Define…

Vessels & Blood Pressure: CHAPTER 20

I. Vessel Structure

  1. Define the following and explain the function of each: vasa vasorum, lumen, vasomotion, and anastomoses.
  2. Distinguish between the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa of a blood vessel. Consider location, tissue type, and function.
  3. Describe the structural and functional differences between arteries (elastic and muscular), capillaries, and veins.
  4. How do the differences in the tunica media reflect the different functions of these vessels?
  5. Compare and contrast the different types of capillaries.
  6. What types of materials will pass through the wall of each type of capillary?
  7. In what organs do you usually find sinusoids, and why?
  8. Describe the function of precapillary sphincters. Why is this function important?

II. Vascular Anatomy

  1. Describe the function of the hepatic portal system and differentiate it from the function of the hepatic veins.
  2. Where is the circle of Willis located and why is this structure advantageous?
  3. Identify the functions of the following structures in fetal circulation: umbilical arteries, umbilical veins, ductus arteriosus, ductus venous, and foramen ovale.
  4. Identify the major differences between adult and fetal circulation and explain why fetal circulation has these modifications.

III. Blood Pressure (BP)

A. Systemic blood pressure

  1. Define blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance. List and explain three factors that contribute to resistance in a blood vessel.
  2. Explain how arterial BP, capillary BP, and venous BP differ, and why.
  3. Explain how cardiac output, blood volume, and vessel diameter relate to blood pressure.
  4. Define the term shock and identify its signs. Describe the possible causes of shock.

B. Arterial BP

  1. Distinguish between systolic and diastolic BP. Relate these changes in blood pressure to the cardiac cycle.
  2. Given blood pressure, identify the systolic and diastolic values.
  3. Define: mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. Calculate mean arterial pressure, if given systolic and diastolic pressures.
  4. Explain where and how to take pulse and blood pressure readings. State average healthy blood pressure and pulse values.
  5. Distinguish between hypotension and hypertension. What factors contribute to hypertension?

C. Venous Pressure

  1. Describe the anatomy and function of venous valves. What are varicose veins?
  2. Explain how skeletal muscle contraction contributes to venous return.
  3. Explain how respiration contributes to venous return.

D. Capillary Pressures

  1. Review osmosis and osmotic pressure. 
  2. What molecules are primarily responsible for the colloid osmotic pressure of blood?
  3. Explain how capillary exchange (filtration and reabsorption) occurs. Include the role of hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure, in both capillary and interstitial fluid.
  4. Explain what net filtration pressure is and calculate it from given hydrostatic and osmotic pressures.
  5. Explain how the difference in net filtration pressure across a capillary bed facilitates capillary exchange.
  6. Define edema and relate it to the processes discussed above. List possible causes of edema.

E. Regulation of blood pressure and blood flow

  1. Explain the significance of tissue perfusion.
  2. Explain how blood flow and blood pressure are controlled locally. List some of the molecules that induce localized vasodilation or vasoconstriction
  3. Explain how blood flow and blood pressure are controlled neurologically:
    • Explain the functions of the cardiac and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata.
    • Define vasomotor tone and explain the role of the sympathetic nervous system.
    • Describe baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes that control blood pressure, including where these receptors are located.
    • Describe the effect of hypoxia, acidity, and hypercapnia on the cardiovascular centers.
  4. Explain how blood flow and blood pressure are controlled hormonally:
    • Explain the effects of norepinephrine, epinephrine, ADH, Angiotensin II, and ANP on blood pressure.
    • Explain the Renin-Angiotensin pathway, and the four ways angiotensin II affects blood pressure.

Lab 4: Blood Vessels & Blood Pressure

  1.  
    1. Describe the structural differences between arteries and veins.
      • Distinguish between a vein and an artery under the microscope.
    2. Distinguish between the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa.
    3. Describe how to take a pulse measurement and why this is clinically useful.
      • Identify major pulse points.
      • How does exercise affect pulse rate?
    4. Describe how to take blood pressure. What are the sounds of Korotkoff?
    5. Distinguish between systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
    6. State a typical normal value for blood pressure, and identify a given pressure reading as hypertension, hypotension, or normal.
    7. Calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP) for given values of systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

 

 

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