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This picture was used to answer the question bellow, but i’m really…

This picture was used to answer the question bellow, but i’m really confuse how it works. could you explain to me how to know if it’s going to decrease or increase? 

 

1. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of ___________ in one minute.

  1. the heart
  2. each ventricle

2. The equation for Cardiac Output is CO =

  1. EDV – SV.
  2. HR × SV.
  3. EDV – ESV.

3. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle:

  1. in one minute.
  2. with each heartbeat.

4. End diastolic volume (EDV) is the:

  1. amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of diastole.
  2. amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of systole.
  3. amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle with each heartbeat.

5. Calculate stroke volume, given the following: EDV = 120 ml/beat and ESV = 50 ml/beat.

  1. 70 ml/beat
  2. 170 ml/beat
  3. 50 ml/beat

 

6. Predict what would happen to heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) with increased sympathetic input.

  1. Decreased HR, decreased SV, and decreased CO
  2. Increased HR, increased SV, and increased CO
  3. Increased HR, decreased SV, and increased CO

7. Predict what would happen to heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) with decreased heart rate.

  1. Decreased HR, decreased SV, and increased CO
  2. Decreased HR, increased SV, and no change to CO
  3. Decreased HR, decreased SV, and decreased CO

8. Which of the following chemicals would slow the heart rate?

  1. Epinephrine
  2. Acetylcholine
  3. Norepinephrine

9. How does the sympathetic nervous system increase stroke volume?

  1. By increasing contractility
  2. By increasing the filling time for the ventricle
  3. By increasing the blood volume returning to the heart

10. How does increased blood calcium and increased intracellular calcium ions increase stroke volume?

  1. By increasing contractility
  2. By increasing the filling time for the ventricle
  3. By increasing the blood volume returning to the heart
  4. By decreasing afterload

11. High blood pressure increases the heart’s workload by:

  1. Increasing preload
  2. Increasing contractility
  3. Increasing afterload

12. Increased preload results from:

  1. Increased EDV
  2. Increased ESV

13. Increased contractility will lead to a:

  1. Decreased EDV
  2. Decreased ESV
  3. Increased ESV

 

14. Increased afterload will cause:

  1. A decrease in stroke volume; increase in Cardiac Output
  2. A decrease in stroke volume; decrease in Cardiac Output
  3. An increase in stroke volume; increase in Cardiac Output

15. An increase in the EDV will:

  1. Increase the degree of stretch on the myocardial sarcomeres decreasing the stroke volume.
  2. Increase the degree of stretch on the myocardial sarcomeres increasing the stroke volume.
  3. Decrease the degree of stretch on the myocardial sarcomeres increasing the stroke volume.
  4. None of the above

16. An increase in the ESV would result from:

  1. An increase in the SV
  2. A decrease in the SV

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