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Summarize each of all 3 charts and their categories below with …

Summarize each of all 3 charts and their categories below with 

Legal Cases
 Lau v. Nichols Castaneda v. PickardFlores v. ArizonaPlyler v. Doe

How did the legal case affect the policies and laws governing language instruction?


Lau v. Nichols Supreme Court case that examined whether federally funded schools must offer supplementary English language courses to non-English-speaking students. The Supreme Court ruled that refusing to provide non-English-speaking students with supplemental language courses violated the California Education Code and Section 601 of ​the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Spitzer, 2019).Congress passed the Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974. This acknowledged that all children enrolled in public schools are eligible to equal educational opportunity without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin. Flores v. Arizonabegan over the controversy that ELL programs were not funded enough and that the civil rights of ELL students was violated.Plyler v. Doe, the landmark case in which the U.S. Supreme Court held that it is unconstitutional for a state to deny students access to public elementary or secondary education based on their immigration status.

How will knowledge of these cases affect your future professional practice?


Knowledge of these cases will affect my future professional practice by giving English Language Learners the same right to a great education as their English-speaking peers. They will have educators who are trained to teach them and meet them where they are.


Federal Laws and Requirements



Every Student Succeeds Acts (ESSA)

Title III

Title VI

Office for Civil Rights/Department of Justice Resolutions

How did the federal law/requirement affect accountability, assessment, funding, and identification in ELL education in Arizona?

Every Student Succeeds Acts (ESSA) offered grants to districts serving low-income students, to become successful. Schools are accountable for students’ success, and the government allows some slack in the requirements of NCLB in return for ESSA gives English Language Learners the opportunity to receive higher education at a superior level. (U.S. Department of Education, 2022). Title III assures that funding is put into place that is going towards language instruction for ELL and Immigrant students. This act has been  amended by the ESSA in September 2016.Title VI  Agreement is to ensure that Arizona Department of Education comes into compliance with its obligations under the EEOA, Title VI, and the 2012 Agreement to: identify all Ells in grades 3-12 in a timely, valid, and reliable manner; to offer them Ell services until they demonstrated proficiency in English (including in the oral, listening, reading, and writing skills), as defined by the 2012 Agreement (Arizona Department of Education: English language, 2022).The Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, and the Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, agreed with the Arizona Department of Education (ADE) that requires to meet requirements for English Language Learners in Reading and Writing. The public school must have proper interventions with the student if needed. This law requires that AZ must go back 5 years and check for any English Language Learner that was exited from a grade prematurely and offer an intervention (The United States Department of Justice, 2015).

How will knowledge of these federal laws and requirements affect your future professional practice?


It is my responsibility as an educator to uphold these laws and make sure that Ells receive a high standard education and feel welcome and safe at school.




Current Societal Trends and Issues



Societal Trend/Issue 1

Societal Trend/Issue 2 

What is a current societal trend/issue in the education of ELLs?

English language learners might be academically behind their peers.  

How will knowledge of these current societal trends and issues affect your future professional practice?


This knowledge can affect my future teaching by being prepared to teach all students regardless of their background. Have differentiated instruction not only in English but Math, Science and Social Studies as well for students that English is not their native language. It is important to have a classroom that is culturally welcoming to students.

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