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Blood: Know the functions of blood:   Physical Characteristics of…

Blood:

Know the functions of blood:

 

Physical Characteristics of blood: 

  • Volume = 7% of body weight in kg (_____ typically have more blood than _______ because they are bigger).
  • Temp is approximately 100 degrees F (slightly ______ than body temp)
  • High viscosity
  • Slightly alkaline (pH 7.35-7.45)…. ___________ pH < 7.35

         ___________ pH > 7.45

 

 

Whole blood is about half plasma and about half formed elements.

  • Plasma: mostly water (>90%) plus solutes (which are mostly plasma proteins). Plasma and IF have similar compositions EXCEPT _________ has more ________ ____________.
  • Formed Elements: ____________, __________, and _________.
  • Blood test showing the % of whole blood that is RBC/Formed elements is the ______ ________.

 

RBC:

RBC are called ______________.

Structure: Contain hemoglobin, small disks, biconcave, flexible membrane, no nucleus or organelles.

High surface to volume ratio, form stacks called rouleaux, bend and flex

 

Function of RBC: Transport respiratory gasses (_____ and ______)

 

Hemoglobin structure: Hemoglobin has _______ protein subunits (that bind ______), ______ heme molecules, and _____ Iron ions (that bind _____)

 

Hemoglobin recycling: 

  • ________________ of the liver, spleen, and marrow engulf old RBC and break down hemoglobin.
  • Subunits -> ______________ (released into blood and recycled)
  • Iron released into blood and brought back to marrow to be recycled (carried by __________)
  • Heme ->___________ (green) ->__________ (yellow). Bilirubin is a waste that is released into the blood. The ________ excretes the bilirubin into the intestines via the bile.
  • Jaundice: ________ skin tone due to ________- buildup. Occurs when liver is not functioning properly (give examples).
  • Sickle Cell Anemia hereditary disease linked to chromosome ___ that results in improper synthesis of ______________.
  • What happens if a person is placed in an environment with carbon monoxide gas?

 

Erythropoiesis is ___________ production.

  • Occurs in the _____ _____________ _________.
  • Hemocytoblasts -> Myeloid Stem Cells -> eventually become RBC
  • Requires AA, Iron, Vit B6, B12, folic acid
  • Stimulated by _____________ (hormone from the kidney) and _________

Blood Type: 

  • Genetically determined. Displayed as the presence of RBC surface antigens ____, ____, and ____. (surface antigens are surface glycoproteins that identify a cell to the immune system)
  • Blood has antibodies that attack all antigen types that are not “self”
    • If appropriate, Antibodies against A and B are present at birth
    • To have antibodies against Rh, the person must be _________ to Rh antigens
  • Understand which antigens and which antibodies are present for any given blood type

 

WBC: 

  • Called ___________.
  • General function is to defend against pathogens, remove wastes/toxins, and remove abnormal cells.
  • Structure: No hemoglobin (“white”), have nuclei and organelles, spherical, larger than RBC 
  • Characteristics: Migrate out of blood, amoeboid movement, use positive chemotaxis, can be phagocytic (NOT basophils).
  • Granulocytes include: _______________, _______________, ____________
  • Agranulocytes include: ___________________, __________________

 

  • Neutrophils: Most common, phagocytes, first to attack bacteria (“____________ ___________”), __________ inflammation by releasing prostaglandins.

 

  • Eosinophils: Phagocytes, Release granules to kill target, effective against parasites, control inflammation, numbers increase in ___________ responses like asthma.

 

 

  • Basophils: Rare, accumulate in damaged tissue and release histamine (______ inflammation) and heparin (_____ ___________ _________).

 

  • Lymphocytes: Part of the body’s ___________ defense. Include ___ _______ (cell mediated immunity), ____ ____________ (humoral immunity/production of _ ________), and _______ (attack abnormal tissue cells)

 

  • Monocytes: Enter tissues and become ______________.  These are aggressive ___________ that engulf large pathogens.

 

  • A __________ is a blood test that gives the # of each type of WBC in a sample of 100 (i.e. the % of each type of WBC).
  • Low WBC count is ___________. (common when patient is getting _____ or  ________ and in diseases like HIV/AIDS)
  • High WBC count is _______________. (occurs in infection)
  • Extremely high WBC count is _________

 

WBC Production: 

  • Hemocytoblasts divide to produce ______ ___________ ___________ and _______ __________ __________. 
  • Lymphoid stem cells become _____________ (process called lymphopoeisis)
  • Myeloid stem cells become ….. 
  • Note: Immature blood cells are called “blasts” 
  • Production of blood cells is stimulated by colony stimulating factors (CSFs)
    • M-CSF stimulates: monocytes
    • G-CSF stimulates: N, E, B
    • GM-CSF stimulates: M, N, E, B
    • Multi-CSF stimulates: M, N, E, B, RBC, P

 

Platelets:

  • Called __________.
  • Cell fragments that are filled with clotting factors
  • Functions: Initiate clotting process, plug hole in vessel, contract to shrink hole in vessel.
  • Normal platelet count: ___________ to ____________ cells per microliter of blood
    • _______________: abnormally low platelet count (Bleeding (bruising, blood in stool, on gums, nose bleeds)
    • _______________: abnormally high platelet count
  • Thrombocytopoiesis/thrombopoiesis is platelet production… (hemocytoblasts -> myeloid stem cells -> megakaryocytes -> platelets. 
  • Platelet production is stimulated by _________________  and ___________ .

 

Hemostasis: Cessation of bleeding 

  • Vascular phase:  Endothelial Cells contract to expose basement membrane, Release _____________ (hormones that cause smooth muscle contraction and cell division). Plasma membranes get sticky.

 

  • Platelet phase: platelet adhesion (platelets adhere to basement membranes and sticky endothelial cells) platelet aggregation (platelets stick to each other to form a ________ ______). Activated platelets release chemicals that further activate platelets (________ feedback).

 

  • Coagulation phase: “Blood clotting”: Blood turns from liquid to gel because of the conversion of soluble _____________ into insoluble ____________.

 

  • Reactions are “cascade” because one leads to the next like a chain reaction.

 

  • Utilizes Calcium and many proenzymes (inactive enzymes)

 

  • Hemophilia is a condition where patients bleed longer because of a deficiency in __________ ___. This condition is inherited in an ____-linked recessive manner.

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