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1. In the retina, our rods are   Responsible for color vision…

1. In the retina, our rods are

 

Responsible for color vision

Fewer in number than cones

Able to decrease acuity in order to increase sensitivity

Present in the fovea

 

 

2. Histone acetylation generally results in

 

Transcriptional suppression

Transcriptional activation

Addition of methyl groups to DNA

A phosphorylation event

 

 

3. None of the following structures are considered to be the cerebral cortex, except for the

 

Diencephalon

Mesencephalon

Telencephalon

Myelencephalon

 

 

4. The hippocampus is a structure of the limbic system primarily involved in

Emotional processing

Decision making

Sleep regulation

Memory consolidation

 

 

5. Studying a group of patients at high risk for depression for a five-year period, to see if they develop depression, would best be characterized as a

 

Case study

Quasiexperimental study

Experiment

Non-research study

 

 

6. Depolarization of a cell can occur as a result of:

 

Na+ entering the cell

Cl- entering the cell

Na+ exiting the cell

None of the above

 

 

7. An example of punishment in operant conditioning would be:

 

Rewarding a child with ice cream for doing her/his homework

To avoid getting grounded, a child helps his/her parents with chores

A child is sent to his/her room for screaming at parent

There is no such thing as punishment in operant conditioning

 

 

8. The correct sequence of nervous system development is:

 

induction of the neural plate, migration, axon growth/synaptogenesis, aggregation, neural proliferation, synapse death/rearrangement.

induction of the neural plate, neural proliferation, migration, aggregation, axon growth/synaptogenesis, synapse death/rearrangement.

neural proliferation, induction of the neural plate, aggregation, migration, axon growth/synaptogenesis, synapse death/rearrangement.

axon growth/synaptogenesis, induction of the neural plate, migration, aggregation, neural proliferation, synapse death/rearrangement.

 

 

9. Which of the following is an example of antagonist activity?

 

Drugs that stimulate postsynaptic receptors

Drugs that block postsynaptic receptors, preventing neurotransmitters from binding to them

Drugs that stimulate the release of a neurotransmitter into the synapse

Drugs that prolong the activity of neurotransmitters in the synapse

 

 

10. Radioactively labeled molecules are used for the imaging of neurotransmitters or receptors with:

 

PET

DTI

MRI

EEG

 

 

11. All of the following are true about serotonin, except

 

It is a monoamine

It is synthesized from tryptophan

It regulates mood

It is the major neurotransmitter of the nigrostriatal pathway

 

 

12. Ionotropic receptors

 

Are ligand-gated

Act slowly

Have G-proteins

Activate second messenger pathways

 

 

13. Postnatal brain development involves all of the following except

Synaptogenesis

Myelination

Induction of the neural plate

Dendritic branching

 

 

14. The result of meiosis is the segregation of chromosomes from one diploid cell into

 

Two diploid cells

One haploid cell

Four haploid cells

One diploid cell

 

 

15. Neuropeptides:

 

Are small-molecule neurotransmitters

Have widespread effects

Act at ionotropic receptors

Result in rapid signals

 

 

16. Dopaminergic neurons in the mesolimbic pathway originate in the

 

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Substantia Nigra

Ventral Tegmental Area

 

 

17. Difficulty in recognizing familiar faces is seen in this disorder:

 

Apraxia

Contralateral neglect

Astereoagnosia

Prosopagnosia

 

 

18. The most direct way to measure electrical activity in the human brain is to use

 

CT

EEG

MRI

PET

 

 

19. Psychobiology, behavioral biology, and behavioral neuroscience are all approximate synonyms for

 

cognitive behavior

behavioral psychology

biopsychology

neurophysiology

 

 

20. An MRI study we discussed in class showed that increases in _____________ is significantly related to word production in toddlers.

 

receptor availability

myelination

brain stem activity

electrical signaling in the visual cortex

 

 

21. The release of neurotransmitter molecules from buttons is often triggered by

 

an efflux of sodium ions from the presynaptic terminal

an influx of calcium ions to the presynaptic terminal

the sodium-potassium pump

the release of calcium ions from the buttons

 

 

22. The neurons of the dorsal roots of the spinal cord are afferent, which means they are:

 

sensory

motor

tracts

bipolar

 

 

23. The major method of cognitive neuroscience is

 

single cell recording

the electroencephalogram

the electrooculogram

none of the above

 

 

24. Epigenetic research has found that there are differences in gene expression between identical twins and that these differences

 

do not occur in fraternal twins

decrease with age

increase with age

decrease disease susceptibility

 

 

25. The CSF circulates through the

 

central canal

lateral ventricles

third and fourth ventricles

all of the above

 

 

26. Which is considered to be the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS?

 

glycine

GABA

glutamate

serotonin

 

 

27. Gametes are produced by

 

mitosis

mitotic cell division

meiosis

fertilization

 

 

28. Which of the following structures is NOT part of the limbic system?

 

hippocampus

septum

primary motor cortex

fornix

 

 

29. During conventional Pavlovian conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly paired with the __________________, and eventually produces a conditioned response.

 

behavioral response

unconditioned stimulus

operant response

classical stimulus

 

 

30. In the presence of the appropriate enzyme, dopamine is converted to

 

norepinephrine

L-dopa

tyrosine

epinephrine

 

 

31. In comparison to the phototopic system, the scotopic system has more

 

rods

neural convergence

sensitivity in dim illumination

all of the above

 

 

32. After release, neurotransmitters are deactivated in the synapse by

 

reuptake

enzymatic degradation

G proteins

both reuptake and enzymatic degradation

 

 

33. The neural crest

 

develops into the peripheral nervous system

is just anterior to the neural tube

is the bottom of the neural tube

develops into the hindbrain

 

 

34. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response is measured during

 

a CT scan

functional magnetic resonance imaging

a contrast X-ray

positron emission tomography

 

 

35. A method of measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals in particular sites in the brains of active laboratory animals is

 

cerebral dialysis

in situ hybridization

immunocytochemistry

electroencephalography

 

 

36. The parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nuclei

 

process color information

receive input primarily from rods

are responsive to movement

are the bottom two layers of the lateral geniculate nuclei

 

 

37. During the course of human evolution, there has been a general increase in the

 

size of the brain

number of cortical convolutions

size of the cortex

all of the above

 

 

38. Individuals with prosopagnosia have damage to the:

 

primary visual cortex

lateral geniculate nuclei

fusiform face area

posterior parietal cortex

 

 

39. The existence of complementary color afterimages supports

 

the opponent-process theory

the component theory

the trichromatic theory

a hierarchical model

 

 

40. Drugs that block the reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse and thus increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the synapse, are usually

 

agonists

antagonists

enzymes

postsynaptic receptor blockers

 

 

41. Identify the correct order of postnatal functional brain development (options include cognitive, sensory, language).

 

Language

Cognitive

Sensory

 

 

43. Respiration increases during parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.

 

True

False

 

 

44. Heart rate increases during sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.

 

True

False

 

 

45. Your options for this question are “open” or “close”.

 

At the initiation of an action potential, sodium channels _________

 , after which potassium channels ________

 . At the peak of an action potential, sodium channels begin to ________

 , and during repolarization, potassium channels ________.

 

 

46. Name the correct order of the phases of an action potential.

 

Repolarization

Hyperpolarization

Depolarization

 

 

47. When a light is shone in the periphery of the receptive field of an on-center cell,

 

the firing of the cell is increased until the light is turned off.

there is an immediate period of inhibition and then a burst of firing when the light is turned off.

the firing of the cell has been inhibited after the cell has been turned off.

the cell is silent until the light comes on again.

 

 

48. The dorsal stream flows from primary visual cortex to

 

dorsal prestriate cortex then to inferotemporal cortex

inferotemporal cortex then to posterior parietal cortex

posterior parietal cortex then to inferotemporal cortex

dorsal prestriate cortex then to posterior parietal cortex

 

 

51. The largest ventricles in the brain are the _______________ ventricles.

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