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    1. Illicit Contrary, Illicit Subcontrary, and Illicit…

 

 

1. Illicit Contrary, Illicit Subcontrary, and Illicit Subalternation

An immediate inference in which the conclusion follows by a correct application of a relation on the traditional square of opposition is deductively valid (as long as the subject term denotes something that actually exists, thereby allowing you to justify taking the Aristotelian standpoint by using the traditional square of opposition). But an immediate inference in which the conclusion is derived from a misapplication of one of these relations is an invalid argument and commits one of the following formal fallacies: illicit contraryillicit subcontrary, or illicit subalternation. (Illicit contradiction is not usually recognized as a fallacy by name.)

 

The Traditional Square of Opposition

 

  

 

Use the selection lists to indicate whether each of the following immediate inferences is deductively valid or deductively invalid from the Aristotelian standpoint, according to the traditional square of opposition. If the inference is invalid, indicate which formal fallacy is committed. If the inference is valid, indicate that the inference does not commit a formal fallacy.

 

 

Argument 1

 

 Some vitamin supplements are not anabolic steroids.
 Therefore, no vitamin supplements are anabolic steroids.

 

 

Argument 1 is deductively     from the Aristotelian standpoint.

 

 

This is because Argument 1     .

 

 

 

Argument 2

 

 It is false that no people with albinism are talented songwriters.
 Therefore, it is false that all people with albinism are talented songwriters.

 

 

Argument 2 is deductively     from the Aristotelian standpoint.

 

 

This is because Argument 2     .

 

 

 

Argument 3

 

 All people who go to college are people who earn bachelor’s degrees.
 Therefore, it is false that no people who go to college are people who earn bachelor’s degrees.

 

 

Argument 3 is deductively     from the Aristotelian standpoint.

 

 

This is because Argument 3     .

 

Argument 5

 It is false that some cancer medications are toxic substances.
 Therefore, it is false that all cancer medications are toxic substances.

Argument 5 is deductively     from the Aristotelian standpoint.

 

This is because Argument 5     .

 

Argument 6

 Some baseball players are not designated hitters.
 Therefore, some baseball players are designated hitters.

Argument 6 is deductively     from the Aristotelian standpoint.

 

This is because Argument 6     .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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